Monday, January 15, 2007


TATANAN ARSITEKTUR TRADISIONAL BALIPosted by Wijaya Kusuma on 2004-08-05 [ print artikel ini beritahu teman dilihat 456 kali ]
IntroductionCulture is a result of the interrelationship between humans and their environment. Traditional Balinese architecture as part of culture has its background on Hindu religion laws, customs and manners. It has always been followed by the people of Bali, and contains exalted values which are considered eternal.The Balinese believe that three factors are crucial to a person's well-being, happiness and health:The microcosm (Bhuwana Alit) which is made up of individual personsThe macrocosm (Bhuwana Agung) which comprises the universeThe supreme God (Hyang Widhi Wasa)In their daily lives, the Balinese strive to keep the three factors in equilibrium, a concept called Tri Hita Karana. Kaja (towards the mountain, upwards) leads towards the sacred; kelod (towards the sea, downwards) leads to demons or evil; and the middle world, secular and without special forces, is where people live. Similarly, the village is located between the temple (upwards) and the haunted graveyard (downwards), and the house should be located between the house shrine and the refuse pit. Natar (centre) harmony and balance are unconsciously striven for in many aspects of thought, emotion and behaviour in daily living.Traditional reasoning of zoning area follows the physics of microcosms (Bhuwana Alit) and macrocosms (Bhuwana Agung). The region is divided into three sub-areas called Poverty, Middle, and Primary areas (Nista, Madya, and Utama, respectively).According to four palm leaf manuscripts ( named Lontar) the Asta Kosala, Asta Kosali, Asta Patali and Swakarman, the housing area is divided into nine regions. In traditional Balinese architecture, people follow the upwards and downwards directions (hulu and teben, respectively). Upwards and downwards directions are defined following the movement of the sun or the mount - sea direction. Sun-rises upwards and sun-sets downwards, or the mount is upwards and the sea is downwards.A simple village in the southern part of Bali consists of family compounds, each side of a wide well built avenue that runs in the direction of the cardinal points; from the mountain to the sea, the Balinese equivalent to the north (upwards) and south (downwards). But this is reverse to that of a village in the northern part of Bali, with the Balinese equivalent to the south (upwards) and north (downwards). The Balinese make a clear differentiation between the dwelling-grounds and the unlived parts of the village, those for public use such as temples, assembly halls and market. The village is a unified organism in which every individual is a body and every institution is an organ. The heart of the village is the central square, invariably located in the centre of the village, at the intersection of the two main avenues. Consequently, the crossroads are the centre of a rose of the winds formed by the entire village, the cardinal directions mean a great deal to the Balinese and the crossroads are a magic spot of great importance.All around and in the square are the important public places of the village: the town temple (Pura Desa), the palace of the local feudal monarch (Puri), the market, the assembly hall (Wantilan) the elaborate tower of drum alarm (Kulkul tower), a giant banyan, the sacred tree of the Hindus (Waringin) and, in the outskirts of the village, the temple of dead (Pura Dalem).Most temples have two courtyards, outer and inner. Entrance to the first court is gained through the split gate, which is like the two halves of a solid tower cut clean through the middle. Furthermore, the two inner sides are invariably smooth, clean surfaces that shine by contrast with the elaborately carved rest of the temple.In the right-hand corner of the first courtyard or outside the gate is the high tower where the village drums are hanged. Inside the outer court are a number of simple sheds: a kitchen where the food for feasts is cooked, a shed for the orchestra and another building used as rest-house by the people and for the making of offerings. Another monumental gate leads into the second court.Buildings Locationa. Zoning of livingZoning of traditional Balinese architecture is divided into nine regions following the wind-rose directions: East, south-east, South, south-west, West, north-west, North, north-east, and Centre. These nine regions, named Sanga Mandala (Sanga = nine , Mandala = region).Buildings are placed following this arrangement,1. The Holy Place, shrines of the gods (Merajan),The place to pray, must lie in the upwards zone or primary zone2. Bedroom (Balé),This is placed in the middle of the primary zone3. Assembly Hall (Balé Adat, Wantilan),A ritual place, lies in the middle zone4. Kitchen (Pawon),The best location is in the south-west or South5. Rice shed/granary (Jineng),The best location is in the south-west or South6. Waterhole (Sumur),The best location is in the south-west or south-east or north-eastb. DistanceApproximations of the distance between buildings and distance from buildings to the fence were calculated by foot's size.c. Building OrientationThe front side of the building is oriented to the centre (natar).d. CirculationAir circulation from outside to inside the area is from the downwards to the upwards zone through the centre (natar).According to the Tri Hita Karana concept, the Balinese believe that one's soul is involved in illness and that they will become vulnerable to illness if these three factors are not in equilibrium. The Balinese believe that both natural (e.g., fractures) and supernatural factors (e.g., evil spirits, mistakes in ceremonies, and sins of ancestors) cause illness. The above statement implies that everyday life in Bali is influenced by religion, custom and manners which are kept eternal from several centuries ago. Tri Hita Karana is a way of life for the Balinese people and it makes an equilibrium in their daily-lives. Therefore, in order to understand and improve Balinese culture, one should refer to this concept.As an organic unit, the structure, significance, and function of the home is dictated by the same fundamental principles of belief that rule the village: blood-relation through the worship of the ancestors, rank, indicated by higher and lower levels, and orientation by the cardinal directions, the mountain and the sea (the cardinal directions also follow the sun rise and sun set).The Balinese say that a house, like a human being, has a head (the family shrine), arms (the sleeping-quarters and the social parlour), a navel (the court yard), sexual organs (the gate), legs and feet (the kitchen and granary) and anus (the pit in the back yard where the refuse is disposed of).The principle of orientation -the relation from the mountains to the sea or the sun rise to the sun set- that constitutes the ever present Balinese rose of the winds, rules the orientation and distribution of the temple and house units.Magic rules control not only the structure but also the building and occupation of the house. A Balinese home consists of a family or a number of related families living within one enclosure, praying at a common family temple, with one gate and one kitchen. The square plot of land (natar) in which the various units of the house stand is entirely surrounded by a wall of whitewashed mud, protected from rain erosion by a crude roofing of thatch.The gate of a well-to-do family can be composed of a pair of brick and carved stone, but more often it consists of two simple pillars of mud supporting a thick roof of thatch. Behind the doorway is a small wall (aling - aling) that screens off the interior and stops evil spirits. The pavilions of the house are distributed around a well-kept yard of hardened earth free of vegetation except for some flowers (frangipani or hibiscus). The area between the house and the wall is planted with coconut, banana or papaya trees. In the southern part of Bali, the place of honour, the higher north-east corner of the house towards the mountain was occupied by the family temple (sanggah kemulan) for worshipping their ancestors. Family temple is an elemental version of the formal village temple.Next in importance to the family temple is the building for sleeping-quarters of the occupants (uma meten), built towards the mountain side of the house. This small building is of bricks or sand stone with a thick roof of thatch supported by eight posts and surrounded by four walls. There are no windows and the light comes through the narrow door. This building is the sanctuary of the home and normally where the heads of the family sleep.The other three sides of the courtyard are occupied by three open pavilions; on the left is the nine posts building (balé tiang sanga) the social parlour and guest house, on the right is the four posts building (balé sakapat) and at the back is the six posts building (balé sakanem). Both four and six posts buildings are small pavilions where other relatives sleep with the children and where the women place their looms to work, respectively. In the lowest part of the land, towards to the sea, the kitchen (paon) and the granary (lumbung, jineng) were built.The better homes often have more elaborate pavilions, by enclosing half of the pavilions with four walls, leaving the other half as an open veranda. This will provide a second sleeping-quarter for a married son. In the house of the well-to-do there is often a great square pavilion (balé gedé) with an extraordinarily thick thatch roof supported by twelve beautiful carved posts which is used for social life.A well built construction is a masterpiece of simplicity, ingenuity and good taste. It consists of a platform of mud, brick or stone reached by three or four steps and covered by a cool roof of thick thatch. The roof is supported by more or less elaborate wooden posts, the number of which determines their name and function. The roof is built of grass sown on the long ribs of coconut leaves, placed close together like shingles and lashed to the bamboo skeleton of the roof with indestructible cords of sugar-palm fibre, with an extra thickness of grass added to the four corners. Such a roof, often a foot and a half in thickness, will last through fifty tropical rainy seasons. The beams that support the roof are ingeniously fitted together without nails, and are held in place with pegs made of heart of coconut wood. Generally, one or two sides of the building are protected by a low wall.Cultural ReviewCulture does not simply constitute webs of significance, systems of meaning that orient humans to one another and their world. They also constitute ideologies; and so it matters to ask who has the power to enforce their views of what is to count and for what. Culture may be depicted as neat and orderly and may be represented as being composed of constituent parts which articulate in a structure of logical and reassuring consistency. This statement indicates that culture can beassessed, reinvestigated, improved and developed in several manners.Culture tends to evolve with modern technology, and this often creates a conflict between the traditional and the modern. On the one hand one wants to keep traditional values, while on the other there is a tendency to change to a modern process. To resolve these conflicts, a research study is needed which mixes modern technology in order to prove that traditional reasoning is valid and still relevant in the future.Some studies on Balinese culture have been carried out, but most concentrated on anthropological aspects. Traditional Balinese architecture is only presented in a small section of these works. Although traditional Balinese architecture plays the most important part on Balinese culture and community, unfortunately none of them tried to explain this role deeper.Bali has no changing seasons, only wet and dry seasons. The south-east monsoon, which is the dry season, is from April to November. During this time there are very heavy seas on the south coast of Bali. The wet season is from November to March, but this does not mean that the rain never ceases. Temperature average is now around 29 C, an increase of a few degrees from the last decade. During the wet season it seems much hotter because of higher humidity and almost constant sun shine. In the mountain areas, it rains more than on the plains and at the shores.Based on a traditional village, Bayung Gede, Bateson and Mead assumed that Bali had a cultural base upon which various intrusive elements have been progressively grafted over the centuries, and that a more rewarding approach would be to study this base first (Bayung Gede is a traditional mountain village and now has gained fame among students of culture as a result of Bateson and Mead's detailed work in 1936-1939). Their explanation was contrasted by Suryani and Jensen in 1989 who described that several traditional aspects did not change and appear to be the same as those in Bateson and Mead's work.Those statements indicate that traditional culture in Bali did not change dramatically and is still eternal after more than 50 years. Therefore, both Bateson and Mead's and Suryani and Jensen's contributed works can be used for the study of changes in Balinese culture. This means that traditional Balinese culture has various intrusive elements which possibly change the culture, but the acculturation process itself is not dramatic.The issue of change in Balinese culture over the last half a century is relevant for some researchers to revise Bateson and Mead's work. How different might the Balinese have been in the 1930s compared with recent years? Some cultural anthropologists concur that a few decades is a relatively short time for any significant change to occur in basic aspects of a culture. In the case of Bali, Mead addressed the issue of possible change in the 40 or more years after Dutch occupation, including automobiles, tourism, etc. Two characteristics of Balinese culture are the ready acceptance of those small changes in custom and technology which can be absorbed without changing the basic premises of life, and the utterinability and unwillingness to contemplate any more drastic change.Covarrubias observed that the Balinese assimilate new and foreign ideas into their traditional forms. This enables the islander to create new styles constantly, to inject new life steadily into their culture, which at the same time never loses its Balinese characteristics. Ramseyer stated that the Balinese absorbed material culture without a break in tradition and that the basic values shaped by religious and communal social interactions have remained remarkably intact.Balinese culture is a living system that is dynamic and not static. In spite of surface changes, especially as evidenced by technology, it is remarkably stable in its basic elements, Suryani et al (1988). Therefore, it is more clear that technology is one parameter which has possibly changed Balinese culture. Another that appears to have changed surely is Balinese architecture.A reinvestigation of Bateson and Mead's works was described by Suryani and Jensen. Since the comparison study is based on Bayung Gede village, several plates were taken which were based on this village. Their contributed works are applied on the present study, which is correlated to traditional Balinese architecture.Although Suryani and Jensen concluded that there is no change on Balinese culture, several years later (in 1990s), the Balinese landscape has changed. There are many areas with hotels and building complexes, even near sacred places and temples. The development of these buildings did not consider the Tri Hita Karana concept. This offends most Balinese people, especially on their ritual ceremony. The Tri Hita Karana concept slowly but surely will disappear from Balinese life, unless some scholars can explain it.Traditional Reason ReviewTraditional Balinese architecture will be approached by using several parameters such as natural ventilation and thermal comfort and wind engineering/architectural aerodynamics. Therefore, several reviews are taken into consideration.The granary and kitchen lie on the front side (poverty area). The meeting and ceremonial halls lie on the middle area. The parents' sleeping quarters lies on the primary area. How did the traditional architects arrange this configuration? Why did not the parents' sleeping quarters lie on the middle, the granary on the primary and the halls on the poverty area? Did they have a building code for this design?The type of roof differs from one to another building and depends on its function. For instance, a triangular roof is used as granary. How did they learn this phenomenon?Building orientation and distance between buildings are also parameters to be considered in traditional Balinese architecture. Posts (or pillars) and open surfaces are also taken into account. Therefore, further questions were addressed here;· If heat transfer was well-known several centuries ago, why this knowledge did not seem to be improved?· If building design has a correlation to architectural aerodynamics, why do we not have a Balinese wind code for building design?· Did traditional architects (undagi) learn the knowledge of traditional Balinese architecture as a part of culture and/or as a dogma that cannot be changed or improved?We suggest that traditional architects learned traditional reason as part of culture but without a strict dogma. This can be seen from the building model itself, where each area/village has a different style, but traditional reasons such as Tri Hita Karana and Sanga Mandala concepts are exactly the same.In accordance to cultural reviews, most traditional Balinese villages are not changing so much. Some traditional buildings for instance may not be suitable for inhabitants health, since the only open surface is a small door for lighting and air re-circulation. Therefore, these conditions are possible to create several diseases i.e. dermatitis (see Suryani and Jensen for further reviews, but unfortunately, Suryani who is a physician did not explain the relationship between these diseases and building condition).In order to increase the heat transfer rate and air re-circulation between the building and its surrounding, some buildings should have a very large open surface at the windward side. Traditional architects might have considered this option, especially for buildings which are used as convention halls. Again, if traditional architects have considered health and comfort parameters, another question to be addressed here is why did this basic knowledge not apply to all buildings? Or, why terms of comfort and health are considered only for a special building? The parent's sleeping quarters which inhabitants used all the time do not have a good natural ventilation and lighting.The traditional Balinese architecture has been correlated to magic rules, i.e., evil spirit, illness, etc. Hence traditional reason becomes less attractive in the modern age since it is difficult to explain the exact meaning. Some studies about traditional Balinese architecture usually explained architectural changes in recent years, but definition and meaning of traditional reason itself are not clear. Therefore, one can interpret traditional meaning in several ways.The population of Bali (especially in the capital) has substantially increased in the last two decades and this increases the energy demand, but unfortunately Bali does not have its own energy sources to support this request. The building arrangements in recent years are multifarious, do not consider environmental conditions and are sometimes unusual. The governmental code for buildings should be revised in order to control emission of carbon dioxide, energy demand, population growth and land availability, impact of tourism and migration, and local climate changes. According to these problems, going back to traditional Balinese community is an alternative suggestion for urban planning in Bali island. The suggestion is realistic since traditional villages and towns produce better living conditions than that in cities and the capital.Some parts of traditional Balinese architecture (e.g. small openings) perhaps should be reviewed to improve thermal comfort of occupants. Before changing these parts, the meaning, concepts and conventions of traditional Balinese community as experienced by the people should be understood. Therefore, traditional Balinese architecture can be improved without loss of identity.As an organic unit, the structure, significance, and function of the house have the same fundamental principles of belief that rule larger communities. By understanding the structure and function of traditional Balinese house, the same principle and analogy can be used to improve larger community or village. Then, we believe that traditional Balinese architecture and community can be modified by considering the above aspects.The study of traditional Balinese reason starts from traditional Balinese architecture by using several key parameters such as heat transfer, wind engineering and architectural aerodynamics, as presented and used in several countries. The new rule of building arrangement and urban planning in Bali will not only consider the several aspects above but also take into account traditional reason, Tri Hita Karana.This new idea is based on the concept that traditional rule can be explained by using modern buildings arrangements, since it contains several terms that should be understood from a scientific point of view. The screen behind the gateway (aling - aling) is considered and its position related to wind load on building surfaces, energy transfer and occupants comfort. The gate is placed at several locations in order to find a relationship between energy transfer and wind load on building surfaces.Some traditional definitions such as centre, shrines of the gods, orientation of all buildings to the centre and distance between buildings to the shrines of gods are analysed in relation to heat transfer, wind engineering, architectural aerodynamics and thermal comfort of occupants.The gate of a well-to-do family house can be composed of brick and carved stone, but more often it consists of two simple mud pillars supporting a thick roof of thatch, and lies on the west side of the site. In Balinese manuscripts (lontar), it has a similar description to the gateway with a few differences in their meaning, where the location of the gate will affect the occupant. This traditional meaning cannot be explained but is believed by the people of Bali. This is the reason why people in Bali carefully consider the gate's position.In several published works, the gateway is correlated to the magic rule, therefore, in order to understand this phenomenon, the gate position is considered in the present investigation. In this study, we start to investigate the gate of a well-to-do family house by placing it at the south-west side.Gateway at the South-West SideAdding fences around the site changes the flow profile near the ground. Without fence, the turbulent kinetic energy was relatively high near the ground. By adding a gate on the west side, the turbulent kinetic energy on the windward walls becomes greater. The air from the gate directly moves to the granary/kitchen and create re-circulation at the windward side (in the area between the fence and granary/kitchen). The flow moves toward the area between the fence and all buildings therefore, the turbulent kinetic energy on those three buildings is very high at the windward side, near the ground.The fence influences the air motion and creates a higher momentum at the roof. The turbulent kinetic energy at the roof of the granary/kitchen is relatively lower than that on walls. Therefore, the momentum of air from the gateway to the granary is greater than that from the fence. In order to minimise this momentum, a fully open surface should be taken into account. By removing the wall, both drag force and turbulent kinetic energy can be minimised.The turbulent kinetic energy at the roof of the wantilan is now greater than that near the ground. Since the turbulent kinetic energy near the ground is relatively high, the wantilan/assembly hall should have a strong foundation. And, in order to minimise the effects of drag and turbulent kinetic energy at the roof, those buildings should have a strong construction, e.g., by adding several posts.The turbulent kinetic energy near the ground tends to increase at the sleeping parent's quarter. This is explainable since air motion from the gateway creates a high momentum in the corner where the this building lies and should also have a strong foundation.A gate on the west-side increases the pressure on wantilan/assembly hall and the sleeping parent's quarter buildings and tends to reduce both the turbulent kinetic and energy dissipation on all buildings.Prof. Wijaya Kusumasumber: milis HDnet

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